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  • Angola Monitor Issue 2/2015

    By Fiona | May 11, 2015

    The Angola Monitor covers the politics, economics, development, democracy and human rights of Angola. It is published quarterly by Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

    This issue covers:
    Political News:  Angola a member of the UN Security Council for two years, several Head of State visits, German view of Angola
    Economic News:  Oil price fall leads to revised budget with a 25% reduction in revenue, Angola seeking $10 billion in loans, the use of the Sovereign Wealth Fund
    Human Rights News: Activists arrested in Cabinda, Rafael Marques de Morais charged with defamation, concerns for freedom of expression and assembly
    Aid and Development News: Child mortality highest in world, floods, mine clearance around Cuito Cuanavale

    This issue is also available in Portuguese.

    We welcome readers’ responses to the Angola Monitor. Please send your comments to info@actsa.org. For more news and information on Angola and southern Africa visit the ACTSA website www.actsa.org.


    Angola takes seat on the UN Security Council
    Angola began its two year term as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council on 1 January 2015. It was the only nominee from Africa. There is a demand for a reform of the UN Security Council, which has five permanent members with veto powers and ten non- permanent members. Angola joins Nigeria as African members of the Security Council. Nigeria’s term will finish at the end of 2015 and Angola’s at end of 2016.

    Heads of State visits
    The Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos unusually made two foreign visits in the period January to March 2015.  They were to neighbouring countries. In January he visited the Democratic Republic of Congo, where co-operation agreements on transport links and on cross border trade were signed.

    In March President dos Santos attended the inauguration of President Hage Geingob in Namibia. President Hage Geingob made a state visit to Angola in April, his first foreign visit since his inauguration. The President of Zambia, Edgar Lungu made a state visit to Angola in February, his first official foreign visit since his election in January 2015.

    The President of the Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) Denis Sasou Nguesso made a state visit to Angola in late March. His second such visit in a year. This would indicate any tensions between the two countries following Angolan incursions into Congo Brazzaville in pursuit of Cabindan separatists has eased and relations are good.

    FNLA re-elect their president
    Luca Ngonda was re-elected President of the Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola, FNLA, in February in a contested election. The FNLA was one of the liberation movements which fought the Portuguese. It got 1.1%and two seats in the 2012 National Assembly elections.

    German view of Angola
    The German Ambassador to Angola, on the occasion of a visit by four German naval ships to the country in March said Germany viewed Angola as a powerful, influential and regional player in Africa, a force for peace and stressed Angola’s role in the maintenance of peace and stability in the Gulf of Guinea.

    UK to train Angolan military?
    United Kingdom (UK) diplomat, Richard Arkwright on a visit to Angola in March stated that the UK had submitted proposals for the UK to provide military training for Angolan soldiers.
    Economic News:

    Falling oil price, revised budget
    Angola set a revised budget in late February. This was in response to falling price of oil. The initial budget was based on an oil price of $81/barrel. The revised budget assumes $40/barrel. The price per barrel in late March was $55/barrel. The revised budget has a 25% reduction in revenue from 7.2 trillion to 5.4 trillion Kwanza (approx. $15 billion). All sectors were cut, with the biggest cut being 44% in the economic sector, covering energy, manufacturing and transport, and the least being defence and security with a 17.2% reduction. The impact of these cuts on services is not clear.  Angola, despite efforts at diversification remains heavily dependent on oil, which accounts for about 46% of GDP, 80% of government revenues and 95% of Angola’s exports.

    Angola to seek loans
    Given the fall in projected revenues from oil there are reports that Angola is seeking loans, some from commercial sources and some from the World Bank, with a $500 million loan for budget support from the latter expected to be finalised in May. Angola has not previously sought a loan for budget support. Angola is also expected to issue a Eurobond to raise $1.5 billion. It has previously postponed plans to issue such a bond on a number of occasions.  It is reported that Angola is seeking up to $10 billion in loans.

    Sovereign Wealth Fund set to invest $1.4 billion
    Angola’s Sovereign Wealth Fund, the Fundo Soberano de Angola (FSDEA) will invest $250 million in each of mining, timber, agriculture sectors and for entrepreneurs who struggle to raise capital from traditional sources and £400 million in healthcare. The Fund which is headed by the President’s eldest son, Jose Filomeno dos Santos, aims to support a diversification of the Angolan economy away from oil.
    $1.6 billion was invested last year in infrastructure and tourism across Africa.

    Has Angola’s sovereign wealth fund paid $100 million to a shell company?
    That is the allegation made by investigative journalist Rafael Marques de Morais.  He claims that on 22 January 2015, Angola’s Sovereign Wealth Fund (FSDEA) transferred the sum of 9,948,750,000 kwanzas, approx. US$100 million to the company Kijinga S.A.and that Kijinga is a shell company with no employees established by Banco Kwanza Invest (BKI). The latter he says was set up by the head of FSDEA and the eldest son of the President, Jose Filomeno dos Santos. FSDEA have said they have provided finance to a company to support micro businesses.
    Goodyear pays $16million to settle bribery allegations in Angola and Kenya
    The Goodyear tyre company has paid $16 million to US regulators to settle a charge it had paid bribes through subsidiaries in Angola and Kenya, The US Securities and Exchange Commission had charged the company and alleged it had paid  $3.2million in bribes in total across both countries, with a reported more than $1.6million to Angolans who worked for the Catoca Diamond Mine, UNICARGAS, Engevia Construction and Public Works, Electric Company of Luanda, National Service of Alfadega, and Sonangol. The Goodyear subsidiary in Angola is Trentyre. The $16 million has been calculated on basis of profit ($14.1 million) made from alleged illicit activity in Angola and Kenya and from interest ($2.1 million).

    Economic diversification
    The UK Prime Minister’s trade envoy for Angola and Nigeria David Heath MP visited Angola in February, his third visit in nine months, to promote UK- Angola trade and economic diversification, with a focus on agriculture. The UK Trade envoy commented that UK investors, “are going to be excited by what I have seen.” David Heath is ceasing to be an MP and did not stand for re-election in the UK election on 7 May.

    Angola is one of five African countries in a High Level Prosperity Partnerships initiative the UK launched in 2013 to increase trade and economic co-operation with a number of countries in Africa. The others are Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mozambique and Tanzania. The initiative involves the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, the Department for International Development and UK trade and investment.
    Human Rights News:

    Two Human Rights activists arrested in Cabinda
    Jose Marcos Mavungo and Arao Bula Tempe were arrested in Cabinda province in mid- March for allegedly being involved in seeking to organise a demonstration that the Governor of Cabinda had banned. The latter is President of the Cabinda Bar Association.  Amnesty International, Lawyers for Human Rights, The Southern Africa Litigation Centre, the International Commission for Jurists and the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Lawyers Association called for their unconditional and immediate release.
    “These arbitrary detentions are the latest disturbing example of growing repression of dissenting voices, peaceful protest and freedom of expression in Angola, particularly in the province of Cabinda,” said Muleya Mwananyanda, Amnesty International’s Deputy Director for Southern Africa.

    Rafael Marques de Morais, honoured in London, charged in Angola
    The Investigative Angolan journalist Rafael Marques de Morais was awarded joint winner of Journalist of the Year for Freedom of Expression by the UK organisation Index on Censorship at a ceremony in London on 18 March. He dedicated his award to Ethiopians Eskinder Nega, Reeyot Alemo, and the Zone 9 bloggers who are in jail in Ethiopia, in Rafael Marques’s view, “for the crime of exercising their right to freedom of expression.”  Rafael Marques paid tribute to the power of solidarity, saying it provided hope.

    Back in Angola on 24 March, Rafael Marques de Morais was in court on charges of criminal defamation.  Initially facing nine charges in the court, he was informed that there would be an additional 15 charges, making 24 in total. If convicted on all charges he faces a potential 14 years in prison plus possible fines of over one million dollars.  The charges stem from allegations and accusations made in Rafael Marques de Morais book, “Blood Diamonds: Torture and Corruption in Angola” published in Portugal in 2011. It alleges serious human rights violations were committed by or with the consent and knowledge of senior military and companies in the diamond fields of Angola.  The complainants first tried to take action in the Portuguese courts, but the authorities there decided against it on the grounds that there was no case to answer.  Legal action was then begun in the Angolan court.  A number of organisations, including Amnesty International, The Media Legal Defence Initiative, The Southern Africa Litigation Center, Article 19 and Publish What You Pay signed an open letter published in the Portuguese paper Publico on 22 March calling for the charges to be dropped arguing that Rafael Marques de Morais was being attacked for writing a book some did not like and that the criminal defamation law under which he is being tried is in violation of the Angolan constitution and Angola’s obligations under international law.
    The trial was postponed to 23 April but then subsequently further postponed to 14 May. Rafael Marques de Morais indicated that discussions to reach a possible negotiated settlement prior to the trial were taking place saying, “there is a willingness to talk that is far more important than sticking to individual positions, but this cannot impede work on human rights, freedom of the press and freedom of expression.”

    Freedom of association and assembly suppressed?
    That is the view of Amnesty International on Angola in their annual report of 2014/15 published on 25 February. The report says forced evictions increased in 2014, with at least 4,000 in Luanda having their homes demolished, with 700 of these left without adequate housing. The report says police and security forces used force or the threat of force, as well as arbitrary detentions, to suppress peaceful demonstrations in Angola. It also cites individuals being subject to criminal defamation charges in a clear reference to the charges against Rafael Marques de Morais.

    The Human Rights Watch report on 2014 takes a similar view on Angola, stating an estimated 17,500 were forcibly evicted from Luanda, some moved 80 kilometres away to plots with limited or no facilities and 7,500 left homeless. HRW state that freedom of expression is severely restricted in Angola due to censorship and self-censorship in state media and ruling party-controlled private media and other forms of government repression. The report says political repression and suppression of dissent persists in Angola.

    Seven state officials sentenced for murder
    Isaías Sebastião Cassule and António Alves Kamulingue were abducted in May 2012 (Angola Monitor 4/2012). After repeated denials of any knowledge of their whereabouts by the state and the attorney general, a leak to media sources followed, confirming in late 2013 that they had been abducted and probably killed. Seven serving police and state security officers have now been sentenced to between 14 – 17 years for their murder.

    Isaías Sebastião Cassule and António Alves Kamulingue were organising anti-government demonstrations when they were abducted. The trial of those now convicted of their murder heard that the police and state security apparatus had Isaías Sebastião Cassule and António Alves Kamulingue under surveillance. While some say the convictions are an indication that there is no impunity in Angola, others have expressed concern that the trial and convictions have not led to clarification of who and at what level the order was given for the abduction and subsequent killing of Isaías Sebastião Cassule and António Alves Kamulingue.

    Sect killings
    At least 22 people, but possibly many more were killed in clashes between the police and members of the Seventh Day Light of the World church in Caála municipality, Huambo province in April. The church was founded by Jose Kalupeteka after his expulsion from the Seventh Day Adventist church and is sometimes referred to as the Kalupeteka sect. Police said that they had to act to protect people in a church compound and after nine police were killed by it is alleged personal bodyguards of Jose Kalupeteka. The police admit to killing 13, they claim in self-defence and to prevent more deaths. Some reports suggest a much higher death toll of 200 and there is a report saying that UNITA, the main opposition party claims 1,000 were killed. Jose Kalupeteka has been arrested. He preaches the world will end on 31 December 2015 and that people should move to remote areas of Angola.

    Mining companies should adopt and implement Human Rights policy
    This is the key recommendation in a report published in February by the Business and Human Rights Resource Center, “Business unusual: Mining in the aftermath of Marikana – the human rights impacts of southern Africa’s extractive sector.” The report recommends that mining companies should:
    • Adopt and implement a human rights policy based on internationally accepted principles
    • Implement human rights due diligence, including commissioning independent human rights impact assessments, taking findings into account in planning and implementing projects, and reporting on human rights performance
    • Commit to seeking free, prior and informed consent of communities affected by projects
    • With workers, local communities and civil society, develop grievance systems that are accessible to workers and residents, are independent and effective, and comply with international human rights
    • Protect workers’ rights by taking steps to respect ILO norms, and promote transparency and respect for human rights in connection with security provision, by joining and implementing the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative and the Voluntary Principles on Security & Human Rights
    • Respect rights of human rights defenders and others who raise concerns about companies’ impacts, and urge governments to protect and respect the rights of human rights defenders and trade unionists
    • Adopt and work toward a goal of zero worker fatalities
    • Pay a fair share of taxes

    Aid and Development News:

    Child mortality highest in the world
    Figures from UNICEF say that Angola has the highest estimated child mortality in the world. UNICEF says the probability in Angola that a new born child will die before their fifth birthday is 167 in 1,000, nearly one in five; the highest in the world. The second highest is Sierra Leone with a rate of 161 in 1,000. The rate for the DRC is 119, Nigeria 117, Mozambique 87, Zambia 87, Namibia 50, and South Africa 44. For the USA it is 7 and for the UK 4.

    Malaria, diarrhoea, respiratory infections and neonatal problems are the main causes of child deaths with malnutrition an underlying cause. Despite the glitz and glamour, building boom and conspicuous consumption of luxury goods by some in parts of Luanda, and with Angola aiming to be a middle income country by 2018 UNICEF, estimates that 40% of the population do not have access to sanitation and only 42% to safe water. The chronic malnutrition rate amongst children five or less in Angola is estimated at 29%.

    Loan to improve water supply
    The African Development Bank Group (AfDB) approved a US $123.77-million loan to Angola to improve water supply and sanitation in seven provinces; Cabinda, Cunene, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Namibe, Bengo, and Cuanza Sul.  The project is to improve and increase institutional capacity, including management. It is claimed it will lead to increased access to water for 338,000 people in peri urban areas.

    Heavy rain and flash flooding affected western Angola in March and early April, with over 70 dead and hundreds, potentially thousands homeless with an unknown  number of people relocated. The speed and ferocity of the flooding which destroyed buildings seems to have taken people and the government by surprise. The most affected provinces were Benguela and Cuanza Sul.

    March floods hit Angola hard in 2009 and 2013
    In January 2015, flooding affected nearly one million people in Mozambique, Malawi, Madagascar and Zimbabwe. More than 150 people died in Mozambique, and more than 250 in neighbouring Malawi. About a quarter of a million people were forced to leave their homes.


    Cuito Cuanavale Mine clearance
    23 March is commemorated as the anniversary of the battle of Cuito Cuanavale in 1988, where Angolan and Cuban forces defeated/repelled South Africa and Unita forces. It is a significant date in Angola and is regarded as a turning point in southern Africa for the ending of apartheid. Cuito Cuanavale is one of the most mined areas of the country and Halo Trust, a UK humanitarian landmine clearance organisation, said it has cleared more than 27,000 mines in the area but that there are still many more years of clearance remaining if the town and surrounding communities are to become safe.

    Angola – a Middle Income country by 2018?
    Angolan Vice President, Manuel Vicente, met with the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Mukhisa Kituyi, on 25 February to discuss cooperation to make Angola a middle income country.  Angola is currently classed as a ‘least developed country’. The classification may however, not mean much to the ordinary Angolan, as Angola receives very little bilateral foreign aid. The discussion about which category Angola should be in has been stimulated by the growth in both its economy and GDP in the past 10 years, largely based on increasing oil prices (until recently) and production to two million barrels a day. Whether the growth has benefited most Angolans or just a small elite group is debated.

    The Secretary General of UNCTAD, while stating that Angola is a strong country, which does not belong in the same category as Burundi, South Sudan and Mozambique, said that Angola faces daunting challenges, “particularly in the sectors of primary education, reducing maternal and child mortality rates and making “heavy investment” in the social field”. He went on to say that Angola needs to diversify its economy to reduce its dependence on oil. UNCTAD has commented previously on Angola’s lack of progress on social indicators and has stated that it is spending much less on health and education than comparable countries, and far less than the initially agreed target of 7 % of GDP. Angola is ranked 149 out of 187 countries for human development in the 2014 Human Development Report published by the United Nations Development Programme. It is in the category of low human development.

    Magnificent and Beggar Land. (Angola since the civil war)
    This is a new book on Angola by Ricardo Soares De Oliveira, published in March 2015 by Hurst and co.
    It is an account of the development of Angola since the end of the civil war in 2002. Reviews have praised the book highly, “hugely informative”, “the best study of Angola in English”, “fascinating, provocative”. It is an account of the making of modern Angola, now the third largest economy in sub Saharan Africa, by the victors of one of Africa’s longest and deadliest civil wars.


    The articles in the Angola Monitor do not necessarily represent any agreed position of ACTSA itself.


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    Angola Monitor Issue 1/15

    By Tony | February 9, 2015

    The Angola Monitor covers the politics, economics, development, democracy and human rights of Angola. It is published quarterly by Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

    This issue covers:
    Political News: MPLA Congress, Independence Day, Angola improving ties with USA and Portugal;
    Economic News: Public Sector Recruitment freeze, Angola perceived as most corrupt country in Southern Africa, Banco Espirito Santo Angola recapitalised;
    Human Rights News: Clampdown on Protests, Migrants arrested, British security guards acquitted over death of Angolan detainee
    Aid and Development News: Mine Clearance, Cunene Dam.

    This issue is also available in Portuguese. Read the rest of this entry »

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    O Monitor de Angola No 1, 2015

    By Tony | February 9, 2015

    O Monitor de Angola aborda política, economia, desenvolvimento, democracia e direitos humanos em Angola. É publicado trimestralmente pela Ação pela África Austral (ACTSA, sigla em inglês).

    Esta edição cobrirá:
    Política: Congresso do MPLA; Dia da Independência; Angola fortalece laços com os Estados Unidos e Portugal.
    Economia: Suspensão dos concursos de admissão para o setor público; Angola é percebida como o país mais corrupto da África austral; Banco Espírito Santo Angola é recapitalizado.
    Direitos humanos: Repressão a protestos; imigrantes presos, seguranças britânicos são absolvidos da morte de detento angolano.
    Ajuda e desenvolvimento: Desminagem; represa de Cunene. Read the rest of this entry »

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    Remembering Peter Brayshaw, by David Kenvyn

    By Mark | December 26, 2014

    I first met Peter Brayshaw in 1968 at the London School of Economics.   It was at the Freshers’ Fair.   Peter was staffing the stall of the Anti-Apartheid Movement, and I was making an application for membership of the student group.   In those days, Peter’s commitment to internationalism concentrated on two causes – the liberation of Southern Africa and the liberation of Read the rest of this entry »

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    Peter Brayshaw

    By Tony | December 19, 2014

    ACTSA is very saddened and shocked by the sudden death of our Vice Chair, Peter Brayshaw on Thursday, 18 December.

    Peter was a great supporter of the liberation of Southern Africa and dedicated to supporting the region overcome the legacy of colonialism, apartheid, eradicate poverty, reduce inequality, achieve justice and uphold rights. Read the rest of this entry »

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    O Monitor de Angola 4.14

    By Mark | December 2, 2014

    O Monitor de Angola aborda política, economia, desenvolvimento, democracia e direitos humanos em Angola. É publicado trimestralmente pela Ação pela África Austral (ACTSA, sigla em inglês).

    Esta edição cobrirá:
    Política: Estado da Nação; números do censo são anunciados; atraso das eleições para governos locais; queda de preço do petróleo reduz gastos públicos; Angola é eleita para o Conselho de Segurança da ONU; Luanda recebe novo governador.
    Economia: Angola pronta para se tornar a maior produtora de petróleo da África subsaariana; agência reguladora americana poderá formalizar acusações sobre alegação de corrupção na indústria do petróleo; governo reduz subsídios para combustíveis; anunciado grande melhoria para sistema de telecomunicações; aerolinha angolana TAAG inicia parceria com a Emirates; classificação de títulos do governo é elevada.
    Direitos humanos: Anistia Internacional acusa governo de proibir manifestações; últimos refugiados retornam a Angola; ONGs pedem que SADC manifeste-se sobre violações de direitos humanos; governo afirma respeitar a liberdade de expressão e direito de protesto.
    Ajuda e desenvolvimento: Reforma da maior ferrovia de Angola é concluída; União Europeia investe 20 milhões de euros em retirada de minas terrestres; esforços de mitigação dos efeitos da seca recebem apoio do Japão. Read the rest of this entry »

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    Angola Monitor Issue 4.14

    By Mark | December 2, 2014

    The Angola Monitor covers the politics, economics, development, democracy and human rights of Angola. It is published quarterly by Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

    This issue covers:
    Political News: State of the Nation; Census figures announced; Local government elections delayed; Falling oil prices reduce public spending; Angola elected to UN Security Council; Luanda gets new governor.
    Economic News: Angola set to become largest oil producer in sub Saharan Africa; US regulator may bring charges over alleged oil corruption; Government reduces fuel subsidies; Major telecommunication upgrade announced; National airline TAAG enters partnership with Emirates; Government bond rating upgraded.
    Human Rights News: Amnesty International accuse government of demonstration ban; Final refugees returning to Angola; NGOs call on SADC to address human rights violations; Government claims it respects free speech and the right to protest.
    Aid and Development News: Redevelopment of Angola’s largest railway complete; European Union invests 20 million Euros in landmine clearing; Drought response receives support from Japan. Read the rest of this entry »

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    O Monitor de Angola No 3, 2014

    By Mark | July 25, 2014

    O Monitor de Angola aborda política, economia, desenvolvimento, democracia e direitos humanos em Angola. É publicado trimestralmente pela Ação pela África Austral (ACTSA, sigla em inglês).

    Esta edição cobrirá:
    Política: Ressurgem disputas por fronteiras marítimas entre Angola e a República Democrática do Congo; resultados preliminares do censo são esperados para setembro; premiê chinês visita Angola; presidente empossa novo ministro da Defesa; Brasil: visita presidencial reforça laços econômicos e políticos; Angola e Cuba assinam tratado de cooperação; Interesses britânicos são ampliados em Angola, e as prioridades para a cooperação internacional.
    Economia: Luanda foi classificada como a cidade mais cara; crise dos bancos portugueses poderá afetar Angola; empréstimo cedido para renovação do setor energético; demanda por dólares permanece alta; apesar de proibição, importação de cimento continua alta; novos investimentos na indústria têxtil deverão criar empregos.
    Direitos humanos: Cidadãos da RDC são acusados de incitação à guerra; polícia agride e prende vinte manifestantes.
    Ajuda e desenvolvimento: Retirada de minas terrestres permite retorno de cinco mil pessoas; risco de seca reduzido em algumas áreas.

    Esta edição também está disponível em inglês. Read the rest of this entry »

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    Angola Monitor Issue 3.2014

    By Mark | July 25, 2014

    The Angola Monitor covers the politics, economics, development, democracy and human rights of Angola. It is published quarterly by Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

    This issue covers:
    Political News: DRC Angola maritime border dispute resurfaces; Preliminary census results expected in September; Chinese Premier visits Angola; President appoints new defence minister; Brazil: Presidential visit strengthens political and economic ties; Angola and Cuba sign agreement of cooperation; Building British interests in Angola and Priorities for International Cooperation.
    Economic News: Luanda rated as the most expensive city; Portuguese banking crisis could affect Angola; Loan agreed for energy sector overhaul; Demand for dollars remains strong; Cement imports remain high despite ban and new investment in textile industry should produce jobs.
    Human Rights News: DRC Nationals charged with provocation of war and Police beat and detain 20 protestors.
    Aid and Development News: Mine clearance makes way for return of 5,000 people and Drought risk reduced in some areas.

    This issue is also available in Portuguese. Read the rest of this entry »

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    O Monitor de Angola: No 2, 2014

    By Mark | May 30, 2014

    O Monitor de Angola aborda política, economia, desenvolvimento, democracia e direitos humanos em Angola. É publicado trimestralmente pela Ação pela África Austral (ACTSA, sigla em inglês).

    Esta edição cobrirá:

    Política: Primeiro censo em 44 anos; presidente acusa MPLA por ineficiência; visita do presidente congolês; oposição demanda eleições locais; cresce tensão entre MPLA e UNITA; aquecimento das relações franco-angolanas; Angola e Estados Unidos se comprometem a aumentar o comércio bilateral.

    Economia: Nova tarifa alfandegária para a importação de bens; a classificação de crédito de Angola é rebaixada; rodada de propostas para leilão de petróleo onshore é anunciada; De Beers planeja nova concessão para exploração de diamantes; FMI faz apelo por maior transparência financeira.

    Direitos humanos: Anistia Internacional critica falta de avanço na área de direitos humanos; Angola recebe a Comissão Africana dos Direitos Humanos e dos Povos; radialista é condenado por difamação.

    Assistência e desenvolvimento: Possibilidade de piora da situação de segurança alimentar em Benguela e Kwanza-Sul; Banco Africano de Desenvolvimento concede empréstimo ao setor elétrico; novo ponto de passagem na fronteira com a Namíbia é planejado.

    Esta edição também está disponível em inglês. Read the rest of this entry »

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